JOINT AND SEVERAL LIABILITY - A situation in which more than one party is liable to repay a debt or obligation and a creditor can obtain compensation from one or more parties, either individually or jointly, whichever he chooses.
JOINT TENANCY - A form of property ownership by two or more persons in which the joint tenants have one and the same interest, arising by one and the same conveyance, commencing atone and the same time and held by one and the same possession (the concept of "four unities").
JOINT VENTURE - The joining of two or more people in a specific business enterprise such as the development of a condominium project or a shopping center.
JUDGMENT LIEN - A lien binding on all the real estate of a judgment-debtor and giving the holder of the judgment a right to levy (i.e. to seize) the land for satisfaction of the judgment.
JUDICIAL FORECLOSURE - A method of foreclosing upon real property by means of a court supervised sale. After an appraisal, the court determines an upset price below which no bids to purchase will be accepted.
JUNIOR MORTGAGE - A mortgage which is subordinate in right or lien priority to an existing mortgage on the same realty, such as a second mortgage.
JURISDICTION - The authority or power to act, such as the authority of a court to hear and render a decision that binds both parties.
JUST COMPENSATION - An amount of compensation to be received by a party for the taking of property under the power of eminent domain.